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Hyundai Excel shomanual ( Engine electrical system)

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    Tham gia ngày:
    5/10/12
    Số km:
    83
    Được đổ xăng:
    39
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    41
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    344 lít xăng
    dùng cẩm nang cho quá trình sửa chữa ôto
    ENGINE
    ELECTRICAL
    SYSTEM
    Return To Main Table of Contents
    GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
    IGNITION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
    CHARGING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
    STARTING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
    GENERAL
    GENERAL
    SPECIFICATIONS
    Distributor MPI FBC
    Type Contact pointless type
    Advance mechanism Controlled by electronic control unit
    Firing order 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
    Centrifugal and vacuum type
    Ignition coil MPI FBC
    Type
    Primary coil resistance
    Secondary coil resistance
    Identification No.
    Diamond
    Poong Sung
    Dae Joon
    Mold single-coil
    0.8 ± 0.08 CI
    12.1 ± 1.8 Kfi
    F-088
    PC88
    DSA-117
    1.2 ± 0.12D
    13.7 ± 2.1 Kfl
    -
    PN22C
    -
    Spark plug (MPI, FBC)
    Type
    NGK
    Champion
    Plug gap
    BUR6EA-11
    BPR6ES-11
    RN9YC4
    1.0-1.1 mm (0.039-0.043 in.)
    2 7 - 2
    GENERAL
    Starter motor (MPI, FBC)
    Type
    Rated output
    Rated time
    No-load characteristics
    Terminal voltage
    Amperage
    Maximum speed
    No. of pinion teeth
    Pinion gap
    A/T, Power Steering
    Direct drive type
    12V 0.9 KW
    30 sec
    11.5V
    60A or less
    6,600 rpm or more
    8
    0.0197-0.079 in. (0.5-2 mm)
    M/T
    l2V 0.7 KW
    6,500 rpm or more
    Alternator MPI FBC
    Type
    Rated output
    Voltage regulator type
    Regulator setting voltage
    Temperature compensation
    Identification No.
    Melco
    Mando
    Battery voltage sensing
    12V 75A (13.5V in case of Mando products)
    Electronic built-in type
    14.4 ± 0.3V
    -10 ± 3 mV/°C
    A2T09493
    AB175015
    13.5V 65A
    14.7 ± 0.3V
    -7 ± 3 mV/°C
    -
    AB165014
    Battery (MPI, FBC)
    Type MF 60AH-B (Maintenance-free battery)
    Ampere hours (5HR) 48 Ah or more
    (20HR) 60 Ah or more
    Cold cranking [at -17.8°C (0°F)] 420 A or more
    Reserve capacity 92 min.
    Specific gravity [at 25°C (77°F)] 1.270 ± 0.01
    NOTE
    COLD CRANK AMPERAGE is the amperage a battery can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain a terminal
    voltage of 7.2 or greater at a specified temperature.
    RESERVE CAPACITY RATING is the amount of time a battery can deliver 25A and maintain a minimum
    terminal voltage of 10.5 at 26.7°C (80°F).
    2 7 - 3
    IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
    IGNITION SYSTEM
    GENERAL INFORMATION
    Ignition timing is controlled by the electronic control ignition
    timing system. The standard reference ignition timing data for
    the engine operation conditions are programmed in the memory
    of the electronic control unit (ECU).
    The engine conditions (rpm, load, warm-up condition, etc.) are
    detected by the various sensors. Based upon these sensor
    signals and the ignition timing data, signals to interrupt the
    primary current are sent to the power transistor. The ignition coil
    is activated, and timing is controlled this way.
    TROUBLESHOOTING
    Probable condition Probable cause
    Engine will not start or is Incorrect ignition timing
    Remedy
    Adjust ignition timing
    hard to start. (Cranks OK)
    Ignition coil faulty Inspect ignition coil
    Power transistor faulty
    Distributor faulty
    Inspect power transistor
    Inspect distributor
    High tension cable faulty
    Spark plugs faulty
    Inspect high tension cable
    Replace plugs
    Ignition wiring disconnected or broken Inspect wiring
    Rough idle or stalls Spark plugs faulty Replace plugs
    Ignition wiring faulty
    Incorrect ignition timing
    Inspect wiring
    Adjust ignition timing
    Ignition coil faulty Inspect ignition coil
    Power transistor faulty
    High tension cord faulty
    Spark plugs faulty
    Ignition wiring faulty
    Incorrect ignition timing
    Spark plugs faulty
    Incorrect ignition timing
    Incorrect ignition timing
    Inspect power transistor
    Inspect high tension cord
    Replace plugs
    Inspect wiring
    Adjust timing
    Replace plugs
    Adjust ignition timing
    Adjust ignition timing
    Engine hesitates/poor
    acceleration
    Poor mileage
    Engine overheats
    2 7 - 4
    IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
    IGNITION TIMING
    Adjustment conditions:
    Coolant temperature: 80-95°C (170-205°F)
    Lamps, cooling fan, and all accessories: Off
    Transaxle: Neutral (N or P for A/T)
    Parking brake: On
    Adjustment Procedures
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    7.
    Connect timing light.
    Start engine and run at curb idle speed.
    Curb idle speed: 700 ± 100 rpm
    With the engine stopped, connect a lead wire with alligator
    clips to the terminal for ignition-timing adjustment (located
    in the engine compartment), and ground it.
    Start and run the engine at curb idle speed.
    Check basic ignition timing and adjust if necessary.
    Basic ignition timing: 5° ± 2°BTDC
    If the timing is incorrect, loosen the distributor mounting nut,
    and rotate the distributor until the timing is correct.
    NOTE
    The ignition timing will be advanced if the distributor is
    turned to the left and retarded if it is turned to the right.
    After adjustment, securely tighten the mounting nut.
    Tightening torque: 10-13 Nm (100-130 kg.cm, 7-9 lb.ft)
    CAUTION
    Be careful, when tightening the nut, that the distributor
    does not move.
    8. Stop the engine.
    9. Disconnect the lead wire connected at step 3.
    10. Start and run the engine at curb idle speed.
    11. Check to be sure that the idling ignition timing is the correct
    timing.
    Actual ignition timing: 10°BTDC
    2 7 - 5
    IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
    CHECKING IGNITION COILS
    1. Measurement of the primary coil resistance.
    Measure the resistance of the positive (+) terminal and
    negative (-) terminal of the ignition coil.
    Standard value: 0.8 ± 0.08 n
    2. Measurement of the secondary coil resistance.
    Measure the resistance between the ignition coil’s positive
    (+) terminal and the high-voltage terminal.
    Standard value: 12.1 ± 1.8 KR
    POWER TRANSISTOR
    1. Connect the negative (-) terminal of the 3V power supply
    to terminal 2 of the power transistor; then check whether
    there is continuity between terminal 3 and terminal 2 when
    terminal 1 and the positive (+) terminal are connected and
    disconnected.
    Terminal 1 and (+) terminal Terminal 3 and terminal 2
    Connected Continuity
    Disconnected No continuity
    2. Replace the power transistor if there is a malfunction.
    CHECKING SPARK PLUG
    Inspection and Cleaning
    1. Disconnect the spark plug cable from the spark plug.
    NOTE
    Pull on the spark plug cable boot when removing the spark
    plug cable, not the cable, as it may be damaged.
    2. Using a plug spark wrench, remove all of the spark plugs
    from the cylinder head.
    CAUTION
    Take care not to allow contaminants to enter through the
    spark plug holes.
    3. Check the spark plugs for the following:
    1) Broken insulator
    2) Worn electrode
    3) Carbon deposits
    4) Damaged or broken gasket
    5) Condition of the porcelain insulator at the tip of the spark
    plug
    2 7 - 6
    IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
    4. Check the spark plug gap using a wire gap gauge, and adjust
    if necessary.
    Standard value: 1.0-1.1 mm (0.039-0.043 in.)
    5. Re-insert the spark plug and tighten to the specified torque.
    If it is overtorqued, damage to the threaded portion of
    cylinder head might result.
    Spark plug: 20-30 Nm (204-306 kg.cm, 15-21 lb.ft)
    Analyzing Spark Plug
    Engine conditions can be analyzed by the tip deposits near the
    electrode.
    Condition Dark deposits White deposits
    Description o Too rich a fuel o Too lean a fuel mixture
    mixture o Advanced ignition timing
    o Low air intake o Insufficient plug tightening
    2 7 - 7
    IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
    SPARK PLUG TEST
    (When engine can be cranked)
    Connect the spark plug to the high tension cable. Ground the
    outer electrode (main body), and crank the engine. In the
    atmosphere, only short sparks are produced because of the small
    discharge gap. If the spark plug is good, however, sparks will
    occur in the discharge gap (between the electrodes). In a
    defective spark plug, no sparks will occur because of a leak
    through the insulation.
    CHECKING SPARK PLUG CABLES
    1. Check the cap and outer shell for cracks.
    2. Measure the resistance.
    Unit: KO
    No.1 No.2 No.3 No.4
    Resistance 10.1 11.8 11.8 14.2
    NOTE
    Resistance should not be higher than 10,000~ per foot
    of cable. If resistance is higher, replace the cable.
    2 7 - 8
    IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
    REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF COMPONENTS
    TORQUE Nm (kg.cm, lb.ft)
    DISTRIBUTOR
    Removal
    1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
    2. Remove the two distributor cap retaining clips and move cap
    to one side.
    3. Disconnect the lead wire connector.
    4. Remove the distributor mounting nut and remove the
    distributor assembly.
    Installation
    1. Turn the crankshaft so that No.1 piston cylinder is at top
    dead center.
    2. Align the distributor housing and gear mating marks.
    3. Install the distributor in to the engine while aligning the fine
    cut groove (or protection) of the distributor’s installation
    flange with the center of the distributor installation stud.
    DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF DISTRIBUTOR
    DISASSEMBLY
    1. Lightly clamp the distributor in a vise equipped with soft
    jaws.
    2. Pull off the rotor from the rotor shaft.
    3. Remove the packing rubber.
    4. Lift off the cover.
    5. Remove the rotor shaft by using a driver.
    6. Remove the disc and spacer.
    7. Disconnect the lead wire connector.
    8. Lift off the plate and unit by removing the three mounting
    screws.
    2 7 - 1 0
    IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
    9.
    10.
    11.
    12.
    Remove the shaft bearing tightening screws.
    Make a position identification mark (for the driven gear) on
    the distributor shaft.
    Place the driven gear on a soft base (wooden block) to
    prevent damaged.
    Punch out the roll pin by using a pin punch.
    INSPECTION OF CAP & ROTOR
    After checking the following, repair or replace if a problem is
    found.
    1. There must be no cracking in the cap.
    2. There must be no damage to the cap’s electrode or the
    rotor’s electrode.
    3. There must be no carbon tracking.
    4. Clean away any dirt from the cap and rotor.
    REASSEMBLY
    Distributor Shaft
    After coating the shaft with a small amount of engine oil insert
    it into the housing.
    CAUTION
    Do not use solvent or similar products.
    Driven Gear
    1. Align the driven gear with the mark made at the time of
    disassembly, and install the gear to the distributor shaft.
    2. When aligning the driven gear’s mating mark and the
    housing’s mating mark, make sure that notch “A” at the
    shaft end is at the position shown in the figure, and then
    align the roll pin hole and drive in a new roll pin.
    CAUTION
    Drive in the roll pin so that the slits are at a right angle
    relative to the shaft.
    2 7 - 1 1
    IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
    Disc
    Insert the disc into the sensor part of the pick up unit and install
    in alignment with the spacer.
    CAUTION
    The disc’s slits must not be restricted.
    Cover
    Install the cover so that the cover’s indentation “A” is aligned
    with the housing’s notch “B”.
    2 7 - 1 2
    IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
    IGNITION TIMING
    Adjustment conditions:
    Coolant temperature: 80-95°C (170-205°F)
    Lamps and all accessories: Off
    Transmission: Neutral (N or P for A/T)
    Parking brake: On
    Adjustment Procedures
    1. Connect tachometer and timing light.
    2. Start engine and run at curb idle speed.
    Curb idle speed : 700 ± 50 rpm
    3. Check basic ignition timing and adjust if necessary.
    Basic ignition timing : 5° ± 1oBTDC
    4. To adjust ignition timing, loosen the distributor mounting nut
    and rotate the distributor until the timing is correct.
    5. After adjustment, securely tighten the mounting nut.
    CHECKING SPARK PLUG
    Inspection and Cleaning
    1.
    2.
    3.
    Disconnect the spark plug cable from the spark plug.
    NOTE:
    Pull on the spark plug cable boot when removing the spark
    plug cable, not the cable, as it may be damaged.
    Using a plug spark wrench, remove all of the spark plugs
    from the cylinder head.
    CAUTION:
    Take care not to allow contaminants to enter through the
    spark plug holes.
    Check the spark plugs for the follows:
    1) Broken insulator
    2) Worn electrode
    3) Carbon deposits
    4) Damaged or broken gasket
    5) Condition of the porcelain insulator at the tip of the spark
    plug.
    2 7 - 1 3
    IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
    SPARK PLUG TEST
    (when engine can be cranked)
    Connect the spark plug to the high tension cable. Ground the
    outer electrode (main body), and crank the engine. In
    atmosphere, only short sparks are produced because of the small
    discharge gap. If the spark plug is good, however, sparks will
    occur in the discharge gap (between the electrodes). In a
    defective spark plug, no sparks will occur because of a leak
    through the insulation.
    CHECKING SPARK PLUG CABLES
    1. Check the cap and outer shell for cracks.
    2. Measure the resistance.
    No.1 No.2 No.3 No.4
    Resistance 10.1 11.8 11.8 14.2
    NOTE:
    Resistance should not be higher than 10,000~ per foot of
    cable. If resistance is higher, replace the cable.
    2 7 - 1 4
    IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
    4. Check the spark plug gap using a wire gap gauge, and adjust
    if necessary.
    Standard value : 1.0-1.1 mm (0.039-0.043 in.)
    5. Re-insert the spark plug and tighten to the specified torque.
    If it is overtorqued, damage to the threaded portion of
    cylinder head might result.
    Spark plug : 20-30 Nm (204-306 kg.cm, 15-21 Ib.ft)
    Analyzing Spark Plug
    Engine conditions can be analyzed by the tip deposits near the
    electrode.
    Condition Dark deposits White deposits
    Description o Too rich a fuel o Too lean a fuel mixture
    mixture o Advanced ignition timing
    o Low air intake o Insufficient plug
    tightening
    2 7 - 1 5
    IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
    DISTRIBUTOR
    COMPONENTS
    1. Breather
    2. Cap
    3. Contact carbon
    4. Rotor
    5. Cable assembly
    6. Ground wire
    7. Igniter
    8. Spring pin
    9. Signal rotor
    10. Breaker base
    11. Vacuum controller-Dual diaphragm type
    12. Rotor shaft
    13. Spring retainer
    14. Governor spring
    15. Governor weight
    16. Distributor shaft
    17. Oil seal
    18. Packing
    19. Housing
    20. O-ring
    21. Washer
    22. Driven gear
    23. Pin
    2 7 - 1 6
    IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
    REMOVAL
    1. Disconnect battery ground cable.
    2. Disconnect high tension cable and spark plug cables from
    distributor.
    3. Disconnect wiring harness from the distributor lead wire.
    4. Disconnect vacuum hoses from vacuum controller.
    5. Remove distributor mounting nut and remove distributor
    assembly from engine cylinder head.
    DISASSEMBLY
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    Lightly clamp distributor in a vise equipped with soft jaws.
    Remove retaining clips and lift off distributor cap and seal
    ring.
    Pull off rotor from rotor shaft.
    Remove two vacuum controller attaching screws.
    Remove link of controller from pin on the breaker base, then
    remove vacuum controller.
    6. Remove two screws and remove igniter.
    7. Remove lead wire (black).
    8. Remove signal rotor shaft tightening screw and two breaker
    plate retaining screws.
    9. Remove signal rotor shaft and breaker plate assembly.
    2 7 - 1 7
    IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
    10. Remove signal rotor shaft from signal rotor.
    11. Remove two spring retainers with pliers and then remove
    two governor spring.
    12. Remove two governor weights.
    13. Mark location of drive gear on distributor shaft.
    14. Place drive gear on soft base (wood block) so that roll pin
    can be removed.
    15. Using a pin punch, remove roll pin.
    16. Remove drive gear and washer.
    17. Remove distributor shaft from housing.
    REASSEMBLY
    1. Clean and inspect all parts.
    2. Install shaft into housing.
    3. Install drive gear into distributor shaft at previously marked
    location. Then install new roll pin.
    2 7 - 1 8
    IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
    4. Install governor weights on the governor plate.
    5. Install governor springs and spring retainer.
    6. Install signal rotor shaft into distributor shaft.
    7. Install breaker plate to housing. Fit the breaker plate so that
    the projection (A) fits into the groove (8).
    8. Tighten two breaker plate retaining screw.
    9. Install signal rotor to rotor shaft. Fit the signal rotor so that
    the spring pin fits on the rotor shaft.
    10. Install ignition to breaker plate and install two screws.
    11. Connect one end of lead wire to igniter attaching screw and
    other end to breaker plate.
    2 7 - 1 9
    IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
    12. Adjust air gap between signal rotor and pick-up of igniter.
    Air gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8 mm (0.03 in.)
    13. Connect vacuum control link to breaker plate and tighten two
    vacuum controller screws.
    14. Install rotor to rotor shaft.
    15. Install seal ring and distributor cap to housing and set the
    retaining clips.
    IGNITION COIL
    Inspection
    1. Using a circuit tester, measure resistance. An open or short
    circuited coil should be replaced.
    [Standard value]
    Primary coil resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 n
    Secondary coil resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7 K0
    External resistor resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.35 a
    2 7 - 2 0
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    GENERAL INFORMATION
    The charging system includes a battery, an alternator with a
    built-in regulator, and the charging indicator light and wires. The
    alternator has six built-in diodes (three positive and three
    negative), each rectifying AC current to DC current. Therefore,
    DC current appears at alternator “B” terminal.
    In addition, the charging voltage of this alternator is regulated
    by the battery voltage detection system. The main components
    of the alternator are the rotor, stator, rectifier, capacitor, brushes,
    bearings and V-ribbed belt pulley. The brush holder contains a
    built-in electronic voltage regulator.
    TROUBLESHOOTING
    Symptom Probable cause Remedy
    Charging warning
    indicator does not
    light with ignition
    switch “ON” and
    engine off.
    Fuse blown.
    Light burned out.
    Wiring connection loose.
    Electronic voltage regulator faulty.
    Charging warning
    indicator does not
    go out with engine
    running.
    (Battery requires
    frequent recharging).
    Discharge battery.
    Drive belt loose or worn.
    Battery cables loose, corroded or worn.
    Fuse blown.
    Fusible link blown.
    Electronic voltage regulator or alternator
    faulty.
    Wiring faulty.
    Drive belt loose or worn.
    Wiring connection loose or open circuit.
    Fusible link blown.
    Poor grounding.
    Electronic voltage regulator or alternator
    faulty.
    Battery life.
    Check fuses.
    Replace light.
    Tighten loose connections.
    Replace voltage regulator.
    Adjust tension or replace drive belt.
    Repair or replace cables.
    Check fuses.
    Replace fusible link.
    Test alternator.
    Repair wiring.
    Adjust tension or replace drive belt.
    Tighten loose connection or repair
    wiring.
    Replace fusible link.
    Repair.
    Test alternator.
    Replace battery.
    Overcharge Electronic voltage regulator faulty. Replace voltage regulator.
    Voltage sensing wire faulty. Repair wire.
    2 7 - 2 1
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    INSPECTION OF CHARGING SYSTEM
    VOLTAGE DROP TEST OF ALTERNATOR OUTPUT
    WIRE
    This test determines whether or not the wiring between the
    alternator “B” terminal and the battery (+) terminal is good by
    the voltage drop method.
    Preparation
    1. Turn the ignition switch to “OFF”.
    2. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
    3. Disconnect the alternator output lead from the alternator “B”
    terminal.
    4. Connect a DC ammeter (0 to 100A) in series to the “B”
    terminal and disconnected the output lead. Connect the (+)
    lead of the ammeter to the “B” terminal and the. (-) lead
    to the disconnected output wire.
    NOTE
    Use a clamp type ammeter that can measure current
    without disconnecting the harness. The reason is that
    when checking a vehicle that has a low output current due
    to poor connection of the alternator “B” terminal, such a
    poor connection is corrected as the “B” terminal is
    loosened and a test ammeter is connected in its place. As
    a result, causes for the trouble may not be determined.
    5. Connect a digital voltmeter between the alternator “B”
    terminal and battery (+) terminal. Connect the (+) lead wire
    of the voltmeter to the “B” terminal and the (-) lead wire
    to the battery (+) terminal.
    6. Connect the battery ground cable.
    7. Leave the hood open.
    Test
    1. Start the engine.
    2. Turn on the headlamps and adjust the engine speed so that
    the ammeter reads 20A and read the voltmeter under this
    condition.
    Result
    1. It is okay if the voltmeter indicates the standard value.
    Standard value: 0.2V max.
    2. If the voltmeter indicates a value that is larger than the
    standard value, poor wiring is suspected. In this case check
    the wiring from the alternator “B” terminal to the fusible link
    to the battery (+) terminal. Check for loose connections, color
    change due to an overheated harness, etc. Correct them
    before testing again.
    2 7 - 2 2
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    3. Upon completion of the test, set the engine speed at idle.
    Turn off the head lamps and the ignition switch.
    4. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
    5. Disconnect the ammeter and voltmeter that have been
    connected for testing.
    6. Connect the alternator output wire to the alternator “B”
    terminal.
    7. Connect the battery ground cable.
    OUTPUT CURRENT TEST
    This test judges whether or not the alternator gives an output
    current that is equivalent to the nominal output.
    Preparation
    1. Prior to the test, check the following items and correct as
    necessary.
    1) Check the battery installed in the vehicle to ensure that
    it is in good condition*. The battery checking method is
    described in “BATTERY”.
    NOTE
    *The battery that is used to test the output current
    should be one that has been partially discharged. With
    a fully charged battery, the test may not be conducted
    correctly due to an insufficient load.
    2) Check the tension of the alternator drive belt. The belt
    tension check method is described in the section
    “COOLING”.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    Turn off the ignition switch.
    Disconnect the battery ground cable.
    Disconnect the alternator output wire form the alternator “B”
    terminal.
    5. Connect a DC ammeter (0 to 100A) in series between the
    “B” terminal and the disconnected output wire. Be sure to
    connect the (-) lead wire of the ammeter to the
    disconnected output wire.
    NOTE
    Tighten each connection securely, as a heavy current will
    flow. Do not rely on clips.
    6.
    7.
    Connect a voltmeter (0 to 20V) between the “B” terminal and
    ground. Connect the (+) lead wire to the alternator “B”
    terminal and (-) lead wire to a good ground.
    Attach an engine tachometer and connect the battery ground
    cable.
    8. Leave the engine hood open.
    2 7 - 2 3
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    Test
    1. Check to see that the voltmeter reads the same value as the
    battery voltage.
    If the voltmeter reads 0V, and open circuit in the wire
    between the alternator “B” terminal and battery (-)
    terminal, a blown fusible link or poor grounding is suspected.
    2. Start the engine and turn on the headlights.
    3. Set the headlights to high beam and the heater blower
    switch to HIGH, quickly increase the engine speed to 2,500
    rpm and read the maximum output current value indicated
    by the ammeter.
    NOTE
    After the engine startup, the charging current quickly
    drops. Therefore, the above operation must be done
    quickly to read the maximum current value correctly.
    Result
    1. The ammeter reading must be higher than the limit value.
    If it is lower but the alternator output wire is in good
    condition, remove the alternator from the vehicle and test it.
    Limit value:
    52.5 A min . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75A alternator (MPI)
    45A min. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... 65A alternator (FBC)
    NOTE
    1) The nominal output current value is shown on the
    nameplate affixed to the alternator body.
    2) The output current value changes with the electrical
    load and the temperature of the alternator itself.
    Therefore, the nominal output current may not be
    obtained. If such is the case, keep the headlights on
    to cause discharge of the battery, or use the lights of
    another vehicle to increase the electrical load.
    The nominal output current may not be obtained if the
    temperature of the alternator itself or ambient
    temperature is too high.
    In such a case, reduce the temperature before testing
    again.
    2. Upon completion of the output current test, lower the engine
    speed to idle and turn off the ignition switch.
    3. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
    4. Remove’ the ammeter and voltmeter and the engine
    tachometer.
    5. Connect the alternator output wire to the alternator “B”
    terminal.
    6. Connect the battery ground cable.
    2 7 - 2 4
    REGULATED VOLTAGE TEST
    The purpose of this test is to check that the electronic voltage
    regulator controls voltage correctly.
    Preparation
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    7.
    Prior to the test, check the following items and correct if
    necessary.
    1) Check the battery installed on the vehicle to see that it
    is fully charged. For battery checking method, see
    “BATTERY”.
    2) Check the alternator drive belt tension. For belt tension
    check, see section, “COOLING”.
    Turn ignition switch to “OFF”.
    Disconnect the battery ground cable.
    Connect a digital voltmeter between the “S(L)” terminal of
    the alternator and ground. Connect the (+) lead of the
    voltmeter to the “S(L)” terminal of the alternator. Connect
    the (-) lead to good ground or the battery (-) terminal.
    Disconnect the alternator output wire from the alternator “B”
    terminal.
    Connect a DC ammeter (0 to 100A) in series between the
    “B” terminal and the disconnected output wire. Connect the
    (-) lead wire of the ammeter to the disconnected output
    wire.
    Attach the engine tachometer and connect the battery
    ground cable.
    Test
    1. Turn on the ignition switch and check to see that the
    voltmeter indicates the following value.
    Voltage: Battery voltage
    If it reads 0V, there is an open circuit in the wire between
    the alternator “S(L)” terminal and the battery (+), or the
    fusible link is blown.
    2. Start the engine. Keep all lights and accessories off.
    3. Run the engine at a speed of about 2,500 rpm and read the
    voltmeter when the alternator output current drops to 10A
    or less.
    2 7 - 2 5
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    Result
    1. If the voltmeter reading. agrees with the value listed in the
    Regulating Voltage Table below, the voltage regulator is
    functioning correctly. If the reading is other than the
    standard value, the voltage regulator or the alternator is
    faulty.
    Regulating Voltage Table
    Voltage regulator ambient Regulating voltage V
    temperature °C (°F) 75A alternator 65A alternator
    -20 (-4) 14.2-15.4 14.4-15.6
    20 (68) 13.9-14.9 14.2-15.2
    60 (140) 13.4-14.6 13.8-15.1
    80 (176) 13.1-14.5 13.6-15.0
    2. Upon completion of the test, reduce the engine speed to idle,
    and turn off the ignition switch.
    3. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
    4. Remove the voltmeter and ammeter and the engine
    tachometer.
    5. Connect the alternator output wire to the alternator “B”
    terminal.
    6. Connect the battery ground cable.
    2 7 - 2 6
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    ALTERNATOR
    REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
    TORQUE : Nm (kg.cm, lb.ft)
    1. Disconnect the negative terminal from the battery.
    2. Loosen the belt tension and remove the belt.
    3. Raise the vehicle.
    4. Remove the mud guard-LH.
    5. Disconnect the alternator B+ terminal wire.
    6. Remove the alternator assembly.
    7. Installation is the reverse order of removal.
    2 7 - 2 7
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    COMPONENTS (75A)
    1. Pulley
    2. Seal
    3. Rotor assembly
    4. Rear bearing
    5. Bearing retainer
    6. Front bearing
    7. Front bracket
    8. Stator
    9. Plate
    10. Voltage regulator and brush holder
    11. Brush
    12. Brush spring
    13. Slinger
    14. Rectifier
    15. Rear bracket
    2 7 - 2 8
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    COMPONENTS (65A)
    1. Pulley
    2. Seal
    3. Rotor assembly
    4. Rear bearing
    5. Bearing retainer
    6. Front bearing
    7. Front bracket
    8. Stator
    9. Terminal
    10. Plate
    11. Brush
    12. Brush spring
    13. Slinger
    14. Rectifier assembly
    15. Rear bracket
    2 7 - 2 9
    DISASSEMBLY
    1. Remove the three through bolts.
    2. Insert a flat screwdriver between the front bracket and stator
    core, and pry downward.
    CAUTION
    1) Do not insert the screwdriver too deeply, as there is
    a danger of damaging the stator coil.
    2) The rear cover may be hard to remove because a ring
    is used to lock the outer race of the rear bearing. To
    facilitate removal of rear cover, heat just the bearing
    box section with a 200-watt soldering iron.
    Do not use a heat gun, as it may damage the diode
    assembly.
    3. Secure the rotor in a vise with the pulley side up.
    CAUTION
    Be careful that the vise jaws do not damage the rotor.
    4. Remove the pulley nut, then remove the spring washer, then
    the pulley, and then the spacer.
    5. Remove the front bracket and two seals.
    6. Remove the rotor from the vise.
    7. Remove the brush holder screws, the rectifier screws, and
    the nut from the B terminal.
    8. Remove the stator assembly from the rear bracket.
    9. Detach the slinger from the brush holder.
    10. When the stator is to be removed, unsolder the three stator
    leads to the main diodes on the rectifier.
    CAUTION
    1) When soldering or unsoldering, use care to make sure
    that heat of soldering iron is not transmitted to the
    diodes for a long period.
    2) Use care that excessive force is not exerted on the
    leads of the diodes.
    11. When separating the rectifier from the brush holder,
    unsolder the two plates soldered to the rectifier.
    2 7 - 3 0
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    INSPECTION
    Rotor
    1. Check the rotor coil for continuity. Check to make sure that
    there is continuity between the slip rings.
    If resistance is extremely low, it means that there is a short.
    If there is no continuity or if there is a short circuit, replace
    the rotor assembly.
    Resistance value: Approx. 3.1 fl
    2. Check the rotor coil for ground. Check to make sure that there
    is no continuity between slip the ring and the core.
    If there is continuity, replace rotor assembly.
    Stator
    1. Make a continuity check on the stator coil. Check to make
    sure that there is continuity between the coil leads.
    If there is no continuity, replace stator assembly.
    2. Check the coil for grounding. Check to make sure that there
    is no continuity between the coil and the core.
    If there is continuity, replace the stator assembly.
    2 7 - 3 1
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    Rectifiers
    Positive rectifier test
    Check for continuity between the positive rectifier and stator coil
    lead connection terminal with an ohmmeter. The ohmmeter
    should read continuity in only one direction. If there is continuity
    in both directions, a diode is shorted.
    Replace the rectifier ‘assembly.
    Negative rectifier test
    Check for continuity between the negative rectifier and the stator
    coil lead connection terminal. The ohmmeter should read
    continuity in only one direction. If there is continuity in both
    directions, a diode is shorted, and the rectifier assembly must
    be replaced.
    Diode trio test
    Check the three diodes for continuity by connecting an ohmmeter
    to both ends of each diode. Each diode should have continuity
    in only one direction.
    If continuity is present in both directions, a diode is defective and
    the heatsink assembly must be replaced.
    BRUSH REPLACEMENT
    Replace the brushes if they are worn to limit line.
    2 7 - 3 2
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    1. Unsolder the pigtail and remove the old brush and spring.
    2. Install the brush spring and a new brush in the brush holder,
    3. Insert the brush to where there is a space 2 to 3 mm (0.079
    to 0.118 in.) between the limit line and the end of the brush
    holder.
    4. Solder the pigtail to the brush holder.
    REASSEMBLY
    Perform reassembly in the reverse procedure of disassembly. Pay
    attention to the following:
    Before the rotor is attached to the rear bracket, insert a wire
    through the small hole in the rear bracket to lock the brush. After
    the rotor has been installed, the wire can be removed.
    INSTALLATION
    1.
    2.
    3.
    Position the alternator and insert the support bolt. (Do not
    attach the nut.)
    Push the alternator forward and determine how many
    spacers (thickness: 0.198 mm) should be inserted between
    the front leg of the alternator and the front case (space A
    in the illustration). (There should be enough spacers so that
    they do not fall out when you let go of them.)
    Insert the spacers (space A in the illustration), attach the nut,
    and complete the installation.
    2 7 - 3 3
    BATTERY (MAINTENANCE FREE TYPE)
    1. The maintenance-free battery is, as the name implies, totally
    maintenance free and has no removable battery cell caps.
    2. Water never needs to be added to the maintenance-free
    battery.
    3. The battery is completely sealed, except for small vent holes
    in the cover.
    4. The battery contains a visual inspection indicator.
    BATTERY VISUAL INSPECTION (1)
    2 7 - 3 4
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    2 7 - 3 5
    CHARGING SYSTEM
    SPECIFIC GRAVITY CHECK CHART
    The specific gravity of battery electrolyte changes with
    temperature. Heat thins the solution and lowers the specific
    gravity. Cold thickens the solution and raises the specific gravity.
    A fully charged battery should have a specific gravity between
    1.260 and 1.280, with the electrolyte temperature at 80°F, the
    specific gravity reading must be corrected by adding 4 points
    (.004) for each 10o above 80°F or subtracting 4 points for every
    10o below 80°F.
    For example : The hydrometer reading is 1.280, and the
    electrolyte temperature reading is 10oF. By using the chart, the
    specific gravity must be lowered by 0.028 points. The true
    corrected reading is 1.252.
    1.280 - 0.028 = 1.252
    You should never take a hydrometer reading immediately after
    water has been added. The water and electrolyte must be mixed
    by either charging for a few minutes at a low rate or by allowing
    the battery to sit for an hour.
    CAUTION
    A difference of 50 points (0.050) or more between one or
    more cells indicates a defective battery. It should be replaced.
    BATTERY CHARGE RATE
    Charge method
    Specific gravity
    Below 1.100
    1.100 - 1.130
    1.130 - 1.160
    1.160 - 1.190
    1.190 - 1.220
    Above 1.220
    Slow charge (5A) Fast charge (20A)
    14 hours 4 hours
    12 hours 3 hours
    10 hours 2.5 hours
    8 hours 2.0 hours
    6 hours 1.5 hours
    4 hours 1.0 hours
    2 7 - 3 6
    BATTERY VISUAL INSPECTION (2)
    1. Make sure ignition switch is in the Off position and all
    accessories are Off.
    2. Disconnect the battery cables (negative first)
    3. Remove the battery from the vehicle.
    CAUTION
    Care should be taken in the event the battery case is
    cracked or leaking, to protect your skin from the
    electrolyte. A suitable pair of rubber gloves (not household
    type) should be worn when removing the battery.
    4. Inspect the battery carrier for damage caused by the loss of
    acid from the battery. If acid damage is present, it will be
    necessary to clean the area with a solution of clean warm,
    water and baking soda. Scrub the area with a stiff bristle
    brush and wipe off with a cloth moistened with baking soda
    and water.
    5. Clean the top of the battery with the same solution as
    described in Step (4).
    6. Inspect the battery case, and cover, for cracks. If cracks are
    present, the battery must be replaced.
    7. Clean the battery posts with a suitable battery post cleaner.
    8. Clean the inside surface of the terminal clamps with a
    suitable battery terminal cleaning tool. Replace damaged or
    frayed cables and broken terminal clamps.
    9. Install the battery in the vehicle.
    10. Connect the cable terminals to the battery post, making sure
    the top of the terminals are flush with the top of the post.
    11. Tighten the terminal nut securely.
    12. Coat all connections with light mineral grease after
    tightening.
    CAUTION
    When batteries are being charged, an explosive gas forms
    beneath the cover of each cell. Do not smoke near
    batteries being charged or which have recently been
    charged.
    Do not break live circuits at the terminals of the batteries
    being charged. A spark will occur where the circuit is
    broken.
    Keep all open flames away from the battery.
    STARTING SYSTEM
    GENERAL INFORMATION
    The starting system includes the battery, starter motor, solenoid
    switch, ignition switch, inhibitor switch (A/T only), connection
    wires, and the battery cables.
    When the ignition key is turned to the start position, current
    flows and energizes the coil of the starter motor’s solenoid.
    When this happens, the solenoid plunger and the clutch shift
    lever are activated, and the clutch pinion engages the ring gear.
    The contacts close and the starter motor cranks.
    In order to prevent damage caused by excessive rotation of the
    starter armature when the engine starts, the clutch pinion gear
    overruns.
    TROUBLESHOOTING
    2 7 - 3 8
    STARTING SYSTEM
    STARTER
    REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
    1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
    2. Remove the E.G.R. valve assembly (U.S.A. Cal. only).
    3. Remove the speed meter cable.
    4. Disconnect the starter motor connector and terminal.
    5. Remove the starter motor assembly.
    6. Installation is the reverse order of removal.
    E.G.R. valve mounting bolt tightening torque:
    10-15 Nm (100-150 kg.cm, 7-11 lb.ft)
    STARTING SYSTEM
    STARTING SYSTEM
    INSPECTION (After removal)
    Pinion Gap Adjustment
    1. Disconnect the wire from the M-terminal.
    2. Connect a 12V battery between the S-terminal and the
    M-terminal.
    3. Set the switch to “ON”, and the the pinion will move out.
    CAUTION
    This test must be performed quickly (in less than 10
    seconds) to prevent coil from burning.
    4. Check the pinion to stopper clearance (pinion gap) with a
    feeler gauge.
    If the pinion gap is out of specification, adjust by adding or
    removing washers between the solenoid and the front
    bracket.
    Pinion Gap: 0.5-2.0 mm (0.0197-0.079 in)
    Solenoid Pull-in Test
    1. Disconnect the connector from the M-terminal.
    2. Connect a 12V battery between the S-terminal and
    M-terminal.
    CAUTION
    This test must be performed quickly (in less than 10
    seconds) to prevent the coil from burning.
    3. If the pinion moves out, the pull-in coil is good. If it doesn’t,
    replace the solenoid.
    Solenoid Hold-in Test
    1. Disconnect the connector from the M-terminal.
    2. Connect a 12V battery between the S-terminal and the body.
    CAUTION
    This test must be performed quickly (in less than 10
    seconds) to prevent the coil from burning.
    3. If the pinion remains out, everything is in order. If the pinion
    moves in, the hold-in circuit is open. Replace the magnetic
    switch.
    STARTING SYSTEM
    Solenoid Return Test
    1. Disconnect the connector from the M-terminal.
    2. Connect a 12V battery between the M-terminal and the
    body.
    CAUTION
    This test must be performed quickly (in less than 10
    seconds) to prevent the coil from burning.
    3. Pull out the pinion and then release it. If the pinion returns
    quickly to its original position, everything is in order. If it
    doesn’t replace the solenoid.
    Performance Test (No-load)
    1. Make the no-load circuit test as shown.
    2. After adjusting the rheostat until the battery voltage shown
    on the voltmeter reads 11.5 volts, confirm that the maximum
    amperage draw is within the specifications and that the
    starter motor turns smoothly and freely.
    Current : 60A or less
    DISASSEMBLY
    To remove the overrunning clutch from the armature shaft, the
    stop ring must be removed.
    Move the stop ring toward the pinion and remove the snap ring,
    now the stop ring can be removed from shaft.
    INSPECTION (After disassembly)
    Armature Coil Ground Test
    Using an ohmmeter, check to make sure that there is no
    continuity between the commutator and the armature coil core.
    If there is continuity, replace armature assembly.
    2 7 - 4 2
    STARTING SYSTEM
    Armature Coil Short-Circuit Test
    Test the armature coil in a growler. Replace the coil if there are
    signs of a short. If the blade attached to the core vibrates while
    the core is turned, the armature is shorted.
    Armature Coil Open-Circuit Test
    Using an ohmmeter, check for continuity between the
    commutator segments. If there is no continuity, the commutator
    segments are open. Replace the armature assembly.
    Field Coil Open-Circuit Test
    Using an ohmmeter, check the field coil for continuity. If there
    is no continuity, the field coil is open. Replace the field coil
    assembly.
    Field Coil Ground Test
    With the field coil mounted to the yoke, check for continuity
    between the field coil and the yoke using an ohmmeter. If there
    is continuity, replace the field coil.
    2 7 - 4 3
    STARTING SYSTEM
    Brush
    A brush worn down to the wear limit line should be replaced.
    Brush Holder
    Check for continuity between the (+) side brush holder and brush
    holder base. If there is continuity, replace the holder assembly.
    Overrunning Clutch
    Inspect the pinion and spline teeth for wear or damage. Replace
    if damaged. Also inspect the flywheel ring gear for damage.
    Rotate the pinion. It should turn freely in a clockwise direction,
    and lock when turned counterclockwise.
    BRUSH REPLACEMENT
    1. Remove the worn brush while taking care not to damage the
    pigtail.
    2. Sand the pigtail end with sandpaper to ensure a good
    soldering, joint.
    3. Solder the end of the pigtail.
    2 7 - 4 4
    STARTING SYSTEM
    REAR BRACKET BUSHING REPLACEMENT
    1. Before the bushing is removed, measure and record the
    pressed-in position (depth) of the bushing.
    2. The bushing can be removed by the use of a puller as shown
    in the illustration.
    3. Press a new bushing in, up to the position recorded under
    Step. 1.
    REASSEMBLY
    1. Install the overrunning clutch to the front end of the
    armature shaft.
    2. Install the stop ring and the snap ring from the front end
    of the armature shaft. Push the stop ring all the way toward
    the snap ring.
    3. When the lever is mounted to the front bracket, pay attention
    to its direction. If it is mounted in a reverse direction, the
    pinion will remain in an outward position and fail to operate
    properly.
    2 7 - 4 5
    STARTING SYSTEM
    INSPECTION OF CLUTCH START SYSTEM
    (IGNITION LOCK SYSTEM)
    Check clutch pedal
    Check that pedal height, pedal freeplay and clutch pedal clevis
    pin play are correct. (Refer to clutch group)
    Check starter relay
    Remove the starter relay and check continuity between the
    terminals. If the continuity is not as specified, replace the relay.
    Check ignition lock switch
    1. Check for continuity between terminals when the switch is
    ON (pushed).
    2. Check for no continuity between terminals when the switch
    is OFF (free).
    2 7 - 4 6
     
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