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Thảo luận trong 'Thảo luận các vấn đề về xe tải - Xe đầu kéo' bắt đầu bởi danhquyenace, 3/5/13.

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  1. danhquyenace
    Offline

    Tài xế O-H
    Expand Collapse

    Tham gia ngày:
    26/1/13
    Số km:
    25
    Được đổ xăng:
    4
    Mã lực:
    21
    Xăng dự trữ:
    193 lít xăng
    Section 2
    TORQUE CONVERTER
    Lesson Objectives
    1. ¬¬¬¬¬¬//
    TORQUE CONVERTER
    The torque converter is mounted on the input side of the transmission
    gear train and connected to a drive plate. The drive plate, or flex plate
    as it is sometimes referred to, is used to connect the converter to the
    crankshaft flywheel flange of the engine. The ring gear, which the
    starter motor engages to turn the engine, is attached to the drive plate.
    Torque Converter
    Transmits engine torqueto
    the transmissioninput shaft.
    Role of the
    torque converter:

    Multiplies torque generated by the engine.

    Serves as an automatic clutch which transmits engine torque to the
    transmission.

    Absorbs torsional vibration of the engine and drivetrain.

    Smoothes out engine rotation.

    Drives the oil pump of the hydraulic control system.
    The torque converter is filled with automatic transmission fluid, and
    transmits the engine torque to the transmission. The torque converter
    can either multiply the torque generated by the engine or function as a
    fluid coupling.
    The torque converter also serves as the engine flywheel to smooth out
    engine rotation as its inertia helps to maintain crankshaft rotation
    between piston power pulses. It tends to absorb torsion vibration from
    the engine and drivetrain through the fluid medium since there is no
    direct mechanical connection through the converter.
    In addition, the rear hub of the torque converter body drives the
    transmission oil pump, providing a volume of fluid to the hydraulic
    system. The pump turns any time the engine rotates, which is an
    7
    Automatic Transmissions - Course 262


    SECTION 2
    important consideration when a vehicle is towed. If the vehicle is towed
    with the drive wheels on the ground and the engine is not running, the
    axles drive the transmission output shaft and intermediate shaft on
    bearings that receive no lubrication. There is a great potential for
    damage if the vehicle is towed for a long distance or at greater than low
    speeds.
    Torque Converter
    The torque converter ’s three major components are; the pump impeller,
    turbine runner and the stator. The pump impeller is frequently
    Components
    referred to as simply the impeller and the turbine runner is referred to
    as the turbine.
    Pump Impeller
    The impeller is integrated with the torque converter case, and many
    curved vanes that are radially mounted inside. A guide ring is installed
    on the inner edges of the vanes to provide a path for smooth fluid flow.
    Torque Converter
    - Impeller
    The vanes of the stator
    catch the fluid as it leaves
    the turbine and redirects it
    back to the impeller.
    When the impeller is driven by the engine crankshaft, the fluid in the
    impeller rotates with it. When the impeller speed increases, centrifugal
    force causes the fluid to flow outward toward the turbine.
    8
    TOYOTA
    Technical Training


    TORQUE CONVERTER
    Turbine Runner
    The turbine is located inside the converter case but is not connected to
    it. The input shaft of the transmission is attached by splines to the
    turbine hub when the converter is mounted to the transmission. Many
    cupped vanes are attached to the turbine. The curvature of the vanes is
    opposite from that of the impeller vanes. Therefore when the fluid is
    thrust from the impeller, it is caught in the cupped vanes of the turbine
    and torque is transferred to the transmission input shaft, turning it in
    the same direction as the engine crankshaft.
    Torque Converter
    - Turbine
    Fluid is caught in
    the cupped vanes
    of the turbine and
    torque is transferred
    to the input shaft.
    Fluid Coupling
    Before moving on to the next component of the torque converter we
    need to examine the fluid coupling whose components we have just
    described. When automatic transmissions first came on the scene in
    the late 1930s, the only components were the impeller and the turbine.
    This provided a means of transferring torque from the engine to the
    transmission and also allowed the vehicle to be stopped in gear while
    the engine runs at idle. However, those early fluid couplings had one
    thing in common; acceleration was poor. The engine would labor until
    the vehicle picked up speed. The problem occurred because the vanes
    on the impeller and turbine are curved in the opposite direction to one
    another. Fluid coming off of the turbine is thrust against the impeller
    in a direction opposite to engine rotation.
    Notice the illustration of the torque converter stator on the following
    page; the arrow drawn with the dashed lines represents the path of
    fluid if the stator were not there, such as in a fluid coupling. Not only is
    engine horsepower consumed to pump the fluid initially, but now it also
    has to overcome the force of the fluid coming from the turbine. The
    stator was introduced to the design to overcome the counterproductive
    force of fluid coming from the turbine opposing engine rotation. It not
    only overcomes the problem but also has the added benefit of
    increasing torque to the impeller.
    9
    Automatic Transmissions - Course 262


    SECTION 2
    Stator
    The stator is located between the impeller and the turbine. It is
    mounted on the stator reaction shaft which is fixed to the transmission
    case. The vanes of the stator catch the fluid as it leaves the turbine
    runner and redirects it so that it strikes the back of the vanes of the
    impeller, giving the impeller an added boost or torque. The benefit of
    this added torque can be as great as 30% to 50%.
    Torque Converter
    - Stator
    The vanes of the stator
    catch the fluid as it leaves
    the turbine and redirects it
    back to the impeller
    The one way clutch allows the stator to rotate in the same direction as
    the engine crankshaft. However, if the stator attempts to rotate in the
    opposite direction, the one way clutch locks the stator to prevent it
    from rotating. Therefore the stator is rotated or locked depending on
    the direction from which the fluid strikes against the vanes.
    10
    TOYOTA
    Technical Training


    TORQUE CONVERTER
    Converter
    Now that we’ve looked at the parts which make up the torque
    converter, let’s look at the phenomenon of fluid flow within the torque
    Operation
    converter. When the impeller is driven by the engine crankshaft, the
    fluid in the impeller rotates in the same direction. When the impeller
    speed increases, centrifugal force causes the fluid to flow outward from
    the center of the impeller and flows along the vane surfaces of the
    impeller. As the impeller speed rises further, the fluid is forced out
    away from the impeller toward the turbine. The fluid strikes the vanes
    of the turbine causing the turbine to begin rotating in the same
    direction as the impeller.
    After the fluid dissipates its energy against the vanes of the turbine, it
    flows inward along the vanes of the turbine. When it reaches the
    interior of the turbine, the turbine’s curved inner surface directs the
    fluid at the vanes of the stator, and the cycle begins again.
    Stator Operation
    The stator one-way clutch
    locks the stator
    counterclockwise and
    freewheels clockwise.
    11
    Automatic Transmissions - Course 262


    SECTION 2
    Converter Fluid
    We’ve already mentioned that the impeller causes the fluid to flow to
    the turbine and transfers torque through the fluid medium and then
    Flow
    passes the stator and back to the impeller. But there are times when
    this flow is quicker and more powerful than at other times, and there
    are times when this flow is almost nonexistent.
    Vortex and Rotary
    There are two types of fluid flow within the converter: one is vortex
    Flow
    flow, and the other is rotary flow. In the illustration of the converter
    fluid flow below, vortex flow is a spiraling flow which continues as long
    as there is a difference in speed between the impeller and the turbine.
    Rotary flow is fluid flow which circulates with the converter body
    rotation.
    Converter Fluid
    Flow
    Vortex flow is strongest
    when the difference in
    impeller and turbine speed
    is the greatest
    The flow is stronger when the difference in speed between the impeller
    and the turbine is great, as when the vehicle is accelerating for
    example. This is called high vortex. During this time the flow of fluid
    leaving the turbine strikes the front of the vanes of the stator and locks
    it on the stator reaction shaft, preventing it from rotating in the
    counterclockwise direction. The fluid passing through the stator is
    redirected by the shape of the vanes and strikes the back of the vanes
    of the impeller resulting in an increase in torque over that which is
    provided by the engine. Without the stator, the returning fluid would
    interfere with normal impeller rotation, reducing it severely.
    12
    TOYOTA
    Technical Training



    TORQUE CONVERTER
    Fluid Flow
    While Vehicle
    is Accelerating
    Impeller turning much
    faster than turbine.
    During times of low vortex flow the fluid coming from the turbine
    strikes the convex back of the vane rather than the concave face of the
    vane. This causes the one way clutch to release and the stator
    freewheels on the reaction shaft. At this point there is little need for
    torque multiplication.
    As the rotating speed of the impeller and the turbine become closer, the
    vortex flow decreases and the fluid begins to circulate with the impeller
    and turbine. This flow is referred to as rotary flow. Rotary flow is the
    flow of fluid inside the torque converter in the same direction as torque
    converter rotation. This flow is great when the difference in speed
    between the impeller and turbine is small, as when the vehicle is being
    driven at a constant speed. This is called the coupling point of the
    torque converter. At the coupling point, like the low vortex, the stator
    must freewheel in the clockwise direction. Should the stator fail to
    freewheel, it would impede the flow of fluid and tend to slow the
    vehicle.
    Fluid Flow While
    Vehicle is Cruising
    Impeller and Turbine at
    almost same speed
    13
    Automatic Transmissions - Course 262

    SECTION 2
    Converter
    Now that we understand the operation of the stator, let’s examine what
    would happen if the stator was to malfunction. First, if the stator was
    Diagnosis
    to lock up in both directions, at periods of high vortex the stator would
    function just perfectly. The fluid would be redirected, hit the back side
    of the impeller vanes and multiply torque and performance at low end
    would be just fine. But, as the impeller and turbine reach the coupling
    point, the fluid would hit the back of the stator vanes and disrupt the
    flow of fluid. This would hinder the flow of fluid and cause fluid to
    bounce off the vanes in a direction that would oppose the flow from the
    impeller to the turbine. This would cause the converter to work against
    itself and cause performance at top end to be poor. Continued operation
    at this coupling point would cause the fluid to overheat and can also
    affect the operating temperature of the engine.
    A typical scenario might be that the customer operates the vehicle
    around town on surface streets and there is no indication of a problem.
    However when the vehicle is driven on the expressway for any
    appreciable distance, the engine overheats and does not have the top
    end performance it once had.
    Second, if the stator was to free wheel in both directions, the fluid from
    the turbine hitting the vanes of the stator would cause it to turn
    backwards and would not redirect the fluid and strike the impeller
    vanes in the opposite direction of engine rotation, in effect, reducing
    the torque converter to a fluid coupling with no benefit of torque
    multiplication. Performance on the lower end would be poor,
    acceleration would be sluggish. However, top end performance when
    the stator freewheels would be normal.
    Service
    The torque converter is a sealed unit and, as such, it is not serviceable.
    However, if contamination is found in the transmission then it will also
    be found in the torque converter. If the contamination in the converter
    is not dealt with, it will contaminate the overhauled transmission and
    cause a come back. So for non lock up converters, flush the converter
    off the vehicle with specialized equipment. Flushing the converter with
    specialized equipment is not recommended for lock up converters as it
    may deteriorate the clutch material. If contamination exists and it is a
    lock up converter, replacement is required.
    14
    TOYOTA
    Technical Training


    TORQUE CONVERTER
    Torque Converter
    There are two ways to test a torque converter. The first method of
    testing is while it is in the vehicle; this is called a torque converter stall
    Testing
    test. The second test method is while the converter is on the bench, and
    special tools are used to determine the condition of the stator one way
    clutch.
    Bench Testing
    In order to bench test the converter, the stator one way clutch must
    lock in one direction and freewheel in the other. Two special service
    tools are used to perform the test: the stator stopper and the one way
    clutch test tool handle. Refer to the vehicle repair manual under the
    heading of "Torque Converter and Drive Plate" for the appropriate tool
    set because there are several different tool sets. The tool set number is
    listed before the tool number in the text of the repair manual.
    Since the one way clutch is subject to greater load while in the vehicle
    (while on the bench is only subject to the load you can place by hand),
    final determination is made when it is in the vehicle. You need to be
    familiar with the symptoms of the test drive, customer complaint and
    the condition of the holding devices in the transmission upon
    disassembly. All this information is important to determine the
    condition of the converter.
    Bench Testing the
    Torque Converter
    Place the converter on its
    side and use the stator
    stopper which locks the
    stator to the converter case
    while the test tool handle is
    turned clockwise and then
    counterclockwise.
    15
    Automatic Transmissions - Course 262

    SECTION 2
    Stall Testing
    The term stall is the condition where the impeller moves but the
    turbine does not. The greatest amount of stall happens when the pump
    impeller is driven at the maximum speed possible without moving the
    turbine. The engine speed at which this occurs is called the torque
    converter stall speed.
    Before stall testing a torque converter, consider the customer complaint
    and your test drive symptoms. The symptoms discussed previously
    regarding poor top end performance or poor acceleration may already
    point to the torque converter as the problem. A road test of the vehicle’s
    acceleration and forced downshift will indicate a slipping stator if
    acceleration is poor. Poor top end performance will indicate a stator
    which does not freewheel.
    When a stall test is performed and engine rpm falls within the
    specifications, it verifies several items:

    The one way clutch in the torque converter stator is holding.

    Holding devices (clutches, brakes, and one way clutches) used in
    first and reverse gears are holding properly.

    If the holding devices hold properly, the transmission oil pressure
    must be adequate.

    Engine is in a proper state of tune.
    In preparing the vehicle for a stall test, the engine and transmission
    should both be at operating temperature and the ATF level should be
    at the proper level. Attach a tachometer to the engine. Place chocks at
    the front and rear wheels, set the hand brake and apply the foot brakes
    with your left foot. With the foot brakes fully applied, start the engine,
    place transmission in drive, and accelerate to wide open throttle and
    read the maximum engine rpm.
    CAUTION
    Do not stall test for a time period greater than five seconds as extreme
    heat is generated as the fluid is sheared in the torque converter. Allow
    at least one minute at idle speed for the fluid in the converter to cool.
    Converter
    The torque converter installation to the drive plate is frequently
    overlooked and taken for. granted. The concerns regarding installation
    Installation
    are: vibration, oil sealing, and oil pump gear breakage. To ensure
    proper installation, measure the runout of drive plate and then the
    runout of the torque converter hub sleeve. Should runout exceed
    0.0118" (0.30 mm) remove the converter and rotate its position until
    runout falls within specification. Mark the converter and drive plate
    position for installation when the transmission is installed. Should you
    be unable to obtain runout within the specification, replace the
    converter.
    16
    TOYOTA
    Technical Training


    TORQUE CONVERTER
    CAUTION
    When replacing a converter or installing a remanufactured or dealer
    overhauled transmission, use only converter bolts to attach to flex
    plate. Similar bolts are too long and will dimple the converter clutch
    surface. See Transmission & Clutch TSB Numbers 016 and 036 of
    Volume 10.
    The converter should be attached to the transmission first. Measure
    from the mounting lugs to the mating surface of the bell housing. This
    ensures that the input shaft, stator reaction shaft, and the pump drive
    hub have all been properly seated. It also prevents any undue pressure
    on the front seal and hub sleeve while the transmission is maneuvered
    in place.
    Lock-Up Clutch
    When the impeller and the turbine are rotating at nearly the same
    Mechanism
    speed, no torque multiplication is taking place, the torque converter
    transmits the input torque from the engine to the transmission at a
    ratio of almost 1:1. There is however approximately 4% to 5%
    difference in rotational speed between the turbine and impeller. The
    torque converter is not transmitting 100% of the power generated by
    the engine to the transmission, so there is energy loss.
    To prevent this, and to reduce fuel consumption, the lock up clutch
    mechanically connects the impeller and the turbine when the vehicle
    speed is about 37 mph or higher. When the lock up clutch is engaged,
    100% of the power is transferred through the torque converter.
    Converter Piston
    To reduce fuel
    consumption, the converter
    piston engages the
    cnverter case to lock the
    impeller and the turbine
    17
    Automatic Transmissions - Course 262


    SECTION 2
    Construction
    The lock up clutch is installed on the turbine hub, in front of the
    turbine. The dampening spring absorbs the torsional force upon clutch
    engagement to prevent shock transfer.
    The friction material bonded to the lock up piston is the same as that
    used on multiplate clutch disks in the transmission. When installing a
    new lockup converter be sure to fill it part way through the rear hub
    with approved automatic transmission fluid as it requires at least a
    15 minute soak period prior to installation, similar to multiplate clutch
    discs.
    Lock-up Operation
    When the lock up clutch is actuated, it rotates together with the
    impeller and turbine. Engaging and disengaging of the lock up clutch
    is determined by the point at which the fluid enters the torque
    converter. Fluid can either enter the converter in front of the lock up
    clutch or in the main body of the converter behind the lock up clutch.
    The difference in pressure on either side of the lock up clutch
    determines engagement or disengagement.
    The fluid used to control the torque converter lock up is also used to
    remove heat from the converter and transfer it to the engine cooling
    system through the heat exchanger in the radiator.
    Lock-Up Clutch
    Disengaged
    Converter pressure flows
    through the relay valve to
    the front of the lock-up
    clutch.
    Valve Control
    Control of the hydraulic fluid to the converter is accomplished by the
    relay valve and signal valve. Both valves are spring loaded to a
    Operation
    position which leaves the clutch in a disengaged position. In the
    illustration above, converter pressure flows through the relay valve to
    the front of the lock up clutch. Notice that the main body of the
    converter hydraulic circuit is connected to the transmission cooler
    through the bottom land of the relay valve.
    18
    TOYOTA
    Technical Training


    TORQUE CONVERTER
    The signal valve controls line pressure to the base of the relay valve.
    When governor pressure or line pressure is applied to the base of the
    signal valve, line pressure passes through the signal valve and is
    applied to the base of the relay valve. The relay valve moves up against
    spring tension diverting converter pressure to the main body of the
    converter.
    Lock-Up Clutch
    When the vehicle is running at low speeds (less than 37 mph) the
    Disengaged
    pressurized fluid flows into the front of the lock up clutch. The
    pressure on the front and rear sides of the lock up clutch remains
    equal, so the lock up clutch is disengaged.
    Lock-Up Clutch
    When the vehicle is running at medium to high speeds (greater than 37
    mph) the pressurized fluid flows into the area to the rear of the lock up
    Engaged
    clutch. The relay valve position opens a drain to the area in front of the
    lock up clutch, creating an area of low pressure. Therefore, the lock up
    piston is forced against the converter case by the difference in
    hydraulic pressure on each side of the lock up clutch. As a result, the
    lock up clutch and the converter case rotate together.
    Lock-Up Clutch
    Engaged
    Converter pressure flows
    into the area to the rear of
    the lock-up cluch while a
    drain is open to the front of
    the clutch.
    19
    Automatic Transmissions - Course 262

    SECTION 2
    20
    TOYOTA
    Technical Training
     
  2. phanminhnhat
    Offline

    Học việc
    Expand Collapse

    Tham gia ngày:
    26/4/09
    Số km:
    4,131
    Được đổ xăng:
    1,002
    Mã lực:
    616
    Giới tính:
    Nam
    Xăng dự trữ:
    36,100 lít xăng
    Mục đích bác post bài này???
     
  3. danhquyenace
    Offline

    Tài xế O-H
    Expand Collapse

    Tham gia ngày:
    26/1/13
    Số km:
    25
    Được đổ xăng:
    4
    Mã lực:
    21
    Xăng dự trữ:
    193 lít xăng
    Em đang đi học nên chưa dịch được bài này,em mong các bác giúp em!
     
  4. phanminhnhat
    Offline

    Học việc
    Expand Collapse

    Tham gia ngày:
    26/4/09
    Số km:
    4,131
    Được đổ xăng:
    1,002
    Mã lực:
    616
    Giới tính:
    Nam
    Xăng dự trữ:
    36,100 lít xăng
  5. danhquyenace
    Offline

    Tài xế O-H
    Expand Collapse

    Tham gia ngày:
    26/1/13
    Số km:
    25
    Được đổ xăng:
    4
    Mã lực:
    21
    Xăng dự trữ:
    193 lít xăng
    Em cũng mới vào lần au em sẽ rút kinh nghiệm
     
  6. danhquyenace
    Offline

    Tài xế O-H
    Expand Collapse

    Tham gia ngày:
    26/1/13
    Số km:
    25
    Được đổ xăng:
    4
    Mã lực:
    21
    Xăng dự trữ:
    193 lít xăng
    Bác làm rồi chắc tiếng anh chuyên nghành cũng khá,bác giúp em cái
     
  7. xedep
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    Tài xế O-H
    Expand Collapse

    Tham gia ngày:
    17/11/12
    Số km:
    51
    Được đổ xăng:
    2
    Mã lực:
    21
    Xăng dự trữ:
    288 lít xăng
    dựa vào từ điển chuyên ngành mà dịch đi bác ơi, cái này gặp người thật giỏi tiếng anh chuyên ngành mới dịch được, bác nên tự mày mò thì tốt hơn.
    chúc bác thành công

    :lx
     
  8. canhoto
    Offline

    Tài xế O-H
    Expand Collapse

    Tham gia ngày:
    10/4/13
    Số km:
    690
    Được đổ xăng:
    230
    Mã lực:
    116
    Xăng dự trữ:
    485 lít xăng
    Ak ak. Nếu 1,2 dòng thì chắc được chứ nhiều thế này cụ phải hỏi xem có cao thủ nào chịu ra tay và ra giá bao nhiêu thôi.
     
  9. guitarauto
    Offline

    Tài xế O-H
    Expand Collapse

    Tham gia ngày:
    16/10/12
    Số km:
    116
    Được đổ xăng:
    3
    Mã lực:
    31
    Xăng dự trữ:
    220 lít xăng
    có thể bác ý muốn để cho a e làm quen với tiếng anh chuyên ngành bác ạ. đọc hiểu ra thì ko có nhiều ý nghĩa lắm, nhưng có thể cái lợi ở đây là làm quen với các từ tiếng anh chuyên ngành :D
     
  10. thkc
    Offline

    Tài xế O-H
    Expand Collapse

    Tham gia ngày:
    23/11/12
    Số km:
    259
    Được đổ xăng:
    40
    Mã lực:
    51
    Xăng dự trữ:
    674 lít xăng
    Không hiểu ông này ông ấy muốn gì nữa?????
     
  11. tomo
    Offline

    Tài xế O-H
    Expand Collapse

    Tham gia ngày:
    2/7/13
    Số km:
    264
    Được đổ xăng:
    261
    Mã lực:
    116
    Xăng dự trữ:
    112 lít xăng
    Biến mô ( bộ chuyển đổi mô men xoắn)
    Bộ chuyển đổi mô-men xoắn được gắn ở phía đầu vào của hộp số
    bánh xe lửa và kết nối với một ổ đĩa. Tấm ổ đĩa, hoặc tấm
    cong vì nó đôi khi được gọi, được sử dụng để kết nối với bộ chuyển đổi để các
    trục khuỷu bánh đà mặt bích của động cơ. Vành răng, mà
    khởi động động cơ tham gia để mở máy, được gắn vào tấm ổ đĩa.
    Chuyển đổi mô-men xoắn
    Truyền động cơ torqueto
    trục transmissioninput.
    Vai trò của
    chuyển đổi mô-men xoắn:
     
  12. tomo
    Offline

    Tài xế O-H
    Expand Collapse

    Tham gia ngày:
    2/7/13
    Số km:
    264
    Được đổ xăng:
    261
    Mã lực:
    116
    Xăng dự trữ:
    112 lít xăng
    Những mô-men xoắn lên nhiều lần được tạo ra bởi động cơ.

    Hoạt động như một ly hợp tự động để truyền tải mô-men xoắn lên nhiều lần từ động cơ đến
    hộp số.

    Hấp thụ rung động xoắn của động cơ và hệ thống truyền lực.

    Làm mịn tốc độ quay ở đầu ra của động cơ.

    Cách bánh bơm của hệ thống điều khiển thủy lực.
    Bộ chuyển đổi mô-men xoắn lên nhiều lần được chứa đầy chất lỏng của hộp số tự động, và
    truyền mô-men xoắn từ động cơ đến hộp số. Bộ chuyển đổi mô-men xoắn lên nhiều lần
    có thể tăng mô-men xoắn lên nhiều lần được tạo ra bởi động cơ hoặc có chức năng như một
    khớp nối chất lỏng. Bộ chuyển đổi mô-men xoắn cũng là động cơ bánh đà để mịn ra
    của động cơ như quán tính của nó giúp duy trì quay trục khuỷu
    giữa các xung năng lượng piston. Nó có xu hướng hấp thụ rung động xoắn từ
    động cơ và hệ thống truyền lực thông qua các môi trường chất lỏng vì không có
    kết nối cơ học trực tiếp thông qua các công cụ chuyển đổi.
    Ngoài ra, trung tâm phía sau của cơ thể chuyển đổi mô-men xoắn lên nhiều lần các ổ đĩa
    bơm dầu truyền tải, cung cấp một lượng nước cho thủy lực
    hệ thống. Máy bơm biến bất kỳ thời gian động cơ quay, mà là một
     

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